ISSN: 2521-9154

Volume 16, Issue 2

Volume 16, Issue 2, Autumn 2013, Page 1-293


Traffic Noise Effects on the Efficiency of Teaching and Studying Classrooms

Khalid Hmoud Modhhi; Aodai Abdulillah Ismail Aodai Abdulillah Ismail

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 138-155

Traffic noise is unpleasant sounds generated due to vehicles and pedestrians activities. Its effect on the efficiency of teaching and studying classrooms continuously increases. That is because of the population growth, vehicles ownership increasing, scientific development, and urbanization process, which leads to variety of traffic noise sources and increasing the generated noise level Students opinion at fifteen different classrooms is used to investigate the traffic noise effectiveness on the teaching and studying classrooms efficiency. Different characteristics of students, and survey with questions of short answer and multiple-choice are selected for this aim. Level of generated traffic noise from both vehicles and pedestrians was measured inside some classrooms to study its relation with some characteristics of both vehicles and pedestrians. Also this study shows some of suitable treating manners to mitigate the traffic noise and increase the teaching and studying classrooms efficiency.

Nonlinear finite element analysis of prestressed concrete box section beams

Ihsan A. S. Al-Shaarbaf; Hiba Emad Abbas

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 156-167

This study presents a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model suitable for the analysis of prestressed concrete box beams up to failure. Concrete was modeled using three-dimensional 20- node isoparametric quadratic brick elements, while the prestressing and reinforcing bars were modeled as one dimensional axial members embedded within the concrete elements. The behavior of concrete in compression is simulated using an elasto-plastic work hardening model followed by a perfectly plastic response, which is terminated at the onset of crushing. In tension, a smeared crack model with orthogonal cracks has been used with the inclusion of a model for the retained post-cracking tensile stresses and a model that reduces the shear modulus of rigidity after cracking. The nonlinear equations of equilibrium have been solved using an incremental-iterative technique based on the modified Newton-Raphson methods. The numerical integrations have been carried out using the 27-Gaussian- quadrature integration rule. Different types of prestressed concrete beams have been analyzed, and the finite element solutions are compared with the available experimental data. The finite element results obtained were the load-deflection response. Several parametric studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of some important finite

element and material parameters on the behavior of prestressed concrete box section beams. In general, good agreement between the finite element solutions and the available experimental results has been obtained. A study was made to compare the finite element ultimate moment of prestressed concrete box beams obtained for different values of compressive strength of concrete and area of prestressing steel with the provisions of the ACI-Code (318M-05). It was found that the predicted values of the ultimate moments obtained using the finite element analysis are in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained using the provisions of the ACI-Code (318M-05).

Fabrication of Germanium Detectors by Using Nd-YAG Laser

Ziad Tarik Al-Dahan; Layth Mokhles Abduljabbar

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 168-179

Germanium detectors were fabricated by doping n-type germanium samples with boron. Boron powder was spread over germanium and bombard with Nd: YAG laser of wavelength 1064nm at different energies of (200,500)mJ to diffused the boron atoms inside the germanium wafer. Different measurements were carried out to characterize the detector made.

Influence of Types Anti-Fungal Admixtures on the Concrete Mix

Dalia Shakir Atwan

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 180-191

In recent years, the antifungal concrete is developed by using several materials as admixtures. In this present study, the antifungal activity of concrete was evaluated against specie of fungi; Aspergillus niger which can be easily discovered in the interiors and exteriors of buildings by using two types of organic antifungal agents which are known commercially as Bleach and Savlon. Besides, the investigations also extends to evaluated the effect of these agents on the some basic properties of concrete produced such as: slump, compressive strength and absorption tests. Generally the results show that the all concrete mixes produced with different concentrations (0.5-2 % by weight of cement) for agents exhibited inhibitor effect for growth that fungi with varying degrees. Furthermore, most properties of activated concretes with antifungal agents demonstrate noticed decrease compared with properties of reference concrete.

Corrosion of Aluminum Alloy in Chloride Medium Containing Pseudomonas aerginosa Bacteria.

Zuheir T. Khulief. Al-Tai

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 192-207

This paper reports the microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) behavior of aluminum alloy in the chloride medium containing Pseudomonas aerinosa bacteria. MIC studies were performed at room temperature for 15 and 30 day in 2% NaCl electrolyte. System I consisted of 2% NaCl by weight (i.e.,uninoculated) as the control system; system II consists of system I inoculated with Pseudomonas aerinosa bacteria. Corrosion analyses by (Tafel polarization resistance and weight loss method); surface analysis (i.e Microstracture examination; Roughness test and X-Ray diffraction analysis) and microbiologically analyses (i.e Sampling; biofilm formation; isolation and identification) were used in this study. The result of Tafel polarization resistance and weight loss method showed that the bacteria caused increasing of corrosion current and increasing the rate of corrosion compared with system I. Surface analysis showed that the bacteria caused pitting corrosion and increasing the surface roughness compared with system I. The results of microbiologically analyses showed non-uniform and heterogeneous biofilm form on the surface of aluminum alloy after immersion in system II and show the role of Pseudomonas aerinosa bacteria in accelerating pitting corrosion of aluminum alloy in the chloride medium.

Kinematic analysis of human gait cycle

Sadiq Jafer Abbass

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 208-222

Kinematic system is used in gait analysis to record the position and orientation of the body segments, the angles of the joints and the corresponding linear and angular velocities and acceleration. Gait analysis is used for two very different purposes to aid directly in the treatment of individual patients and to improve our understanding of gait through research. The purpose of the study is to show an ideal kinematics appearance of human gait cycle for walking in order to get measurement values that can be depended on in the hospitals of rehabilitation, the centers of physical therapy and the clinical of medical sports as a reference data for kinematic joint parameter. In this study, 20 subjects and one abnormal subject (undergoes foot flat) were selected from the society; the 20 subjects were not to have any pathology that would affect gait and had to be unfamiliar with treadmill walking, then a video recording was made for them by using a single digital video camera recorder fitted on a stand of three legs in a sagittal plane while subjects walked on a motorized treadmill one by one, the treadmill is often used in rehabilitation programs because it allows standard and controlled conditions and it needs small space. Then by special motion analysis software (Dartfish) was used to study the knee and hip joint kinematics and the spatial –temporal gait parameters (step length, stride length, stride duration, cadence) from the video recording. Results obtained from the Dartfish program are important in understanding that the knee and hip angles differ in each gait cycle, similarly to spatial- temporal parameters, the spatial- temporal parameters differ in each gait cycle analyzed for subjects.

Deterministic Observer of Direct Field Orientation Control Induction Motor Drive

Mohammed Khalil Hussain

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 223-237

When driven by a filed oriented controller, an induction motor behaves like a separately excited DC machine where the torque and the flux are controlled independently. Based on the direct field orientation control induction motor (DFOCIM) model, the stator current ,rotor flux and rotor speed of induction motor are estimated simultaneously using linear Luenberger observer for stator current and rotor flux and Adaptive linear luenberger observer for stator current ,rotor flux and rotor speed. The salient advantage of the linear Luenberger observer is the accuracy of the observed stator current and rotor flux and that of Adaptive linear luenberger observer is the accuracy of the stator current, rotor flux and rotor speed observation. The validity of the proposed method is verified by the simulation results using matlab software.

Modeling Design of Solar Heating System for Absorption Refrigeration System with Partial Loads & Studying the Collectors arrangements

Mohammed Hadi Ali

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 238-259

This paper presents a modeling design for a solar heating system to be used as a driven - powered thermal energy to a single – stage absorption cooling system using Lithium Bromide solution, by using flat – plate collectors, storage tank, auxiliary heater and 3 – way valves. The study also goes into partial load control by flowrate variation through the generator section and to study the effects of series and parallel collector's arrangement arrays on the solar heating system performance.
The study is focused to evaluate the performance of the solar heating system throughout the summer season. The effects on performance have been explored for various design variables and operation conditions.
In this paper, it was reached to a general formula for a collector outlet temperature arranged in series and compared to a parallel arrangement.
The performance calculations indicate that:
• There is no significant difference in storage tank temperature for both parallel and series arrangements.
• The collector's outlet temperature wasn't greatly affected by the storage tank capacity (size).
• The storage tank temperature increases with partial load


• Percent increases, i.e. as the thermal load decreases.

Studying the Electrical Conductivity of Different Carbon Fillers Reinforced Polyvinyl Chloride Composite Materials

Nirvana A. Abed Al ameer; Walla W. Jameel

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 260-268

The aim of this study is development the electrical conductivity of composite materials which used three fillers of carbon reinforced PVC at different weight fractions. The experimental results showed that carbon black was more effective than carbon fiber and synthetic graphite at low weight fractions, it reached (0.229 S/cm) whereas it was (0.109 S/cm) and (0.104 S/cm) of each carbon fiber and synthetic graphite respectively. At (40%) weight fraction the electrical conductivity was increased to (0.216 S/cm) and (0.226 S/cm) of each carbon fiber and synthetic graphite while it was inattentive with carbon black. Hybrid composites were investigated also; the result appears that maximum value of the electrical conductivity at combination of (20%) weight fraction of fillers, it was (0.592 S/cm).

Study the Effect of Different Parameters on the Corrosion and Inhibition Rate for Copper in Saline Solutions

Huda Dhiaa Abdul Kader

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 269-285

The corrosion of copper in highly concentrations of NaCl in present and absence of sodium soccinate (SS), has been reported using weight loss, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. NaCl solutions were studied at stagnant condition and different temperatures (35-55oC), constant temperature and different rotational velocity (400 – 1200 rpm). The maximum inhibition efficiency at 35oC and decrease with increasing temperature and rotational velocity. The inhibition efficiency of 0.006 M SS obtained by weight loss measurements is about 14%, increasing to about 65% in 5 M NaCl solution and about 6. 76 %, increasing about 64.13 % in 1 M NaCl solution. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that SS is a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition mechanism involves adsorption of SS on the copper surface.

Planned Reliability Improvement Calculation of Iraqi Super Grid Applying Fuzzy Logic Method

Yesar Noori Lafta

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 286-293

Reliability is an essential measure and important component of all power system planning and operation procedures. It is one of the key design factors when designing complex, critical and expensive systems. This paper presents a fuzzy logic approach for reliability improvement planning purposes.
Evaluating the reliability of the complex and large planned Iraqi super grid ;as Al- Khairat generating station with its tie set is intended to be compact to that grid; and determination of the given reliability improvement project are the major goals of the paper.
Results show that the Iraqi super grid reliability is improved by 9.64%.
In the proposed technique, fuzzy set theory is used to include imprecise indices of different components in normal reliability calculations applying a Matlab program and that method can be used as a powerful tool for planning to improve systems reliablity.

Sustainability and Traditional Urban Tissue Baghdad House as case study

Jassim A. Al Dabbagh

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-35

In this day and age "Sustainability" is considered the topic of the hour from a developmental, environmental, social and economical point of view. And from the end of the 1980s due to the climatical changes the concept of architectural and building sustainability appeared as a new idiom …..Nowadays there are many architectural as well as urban projects approved according to sustainability criteria as it is a huge challenge to deal with the serious dangers that cities all over the world are facing. On the other hand we are still mesmerized by the tall glass towers and skyscrapers that spend a lot of energy and create psychologically unpleasant spaces. Unfortunately today the decorative and artificial finishing’s dominate the buildings elevations, while our architectural heritage is being neglected .
The research focuses on combining between hereditary architecture which does not depend on energy and sustainable architecture which is based on renewable energy instead of depilatory energy whenever possible. The main goal of this research is to recognize how the sustainable architectural criteria in the modern and urban environment with the outputs of hereditary architect will help to produce sustainable local architecture.

The impact of Construction legislations on structural deterioration of Baghdad commercial streets

Saad Kh. Mahmoud Aljumaily

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 36-46

Construction guide lines are set in the world to achieve several goals, including the organization of city centers and suburbs, streets and sectors, to avoid chaos and indiscriminate uses of the land, and improve the appearance of urban and aesthetic of the cities, through the adaption of set of laws and regulations that regulate the relationship of institutions involved in management and between real estate owners and investors on the one hand, to promote the aesthetic character and fun to its users on the other.
Commercial street in Baghdad mixed-use at the present time, are public places used by people every day, for the purposes of shopping, leisure, walking, sitting, waiting, and must be provided the maximum possible service, after It was planned to be allocated for traffic moving from one place to another, so there was a need to pay attention to it and maintained as a public realm places and favorite people.
As a result, governments are seeking to reform its cities and developed through the review of controls construction, in response to the movement and the need of people to the streets safe and comfortable with densities balanced, providing comfort and beauty, safety and environmental protection and accessibility in addition to achieving the best use of the value of the land.
The research focuses on studying of some local building codes of Baghdad City and its suburbs, which have contributed to the deterioration of the construction of most main streets, which is the Urban Structure and Urban have, instead of upgrading them, and these laws with regard to high buildings to the streets of the commercial and mixed use, and determine the distance of set-back and visibility of these the buildings. This will be done by addressing the standards of containment space you are working on and seeking to achieve most of the studies and research and the States to improve the Authority of the urban cities, and to study the compatibility and conflicts with the organization of local building laws.
The results showed that the current local building regulations do not use these criteria despite the continuous updating of such controls, which will lead to continued deterioration of the physical suffering of the people and the continuity of use.