ISSN: 2521-9154

Volume 17, Issue 1

Volume 17, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 1-128


Potential Distribution of Cathodic Protection using Mg as a Sacrificial Anode

Alaa Ibrahim Elaibi

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Cathodic protection in the sacrificial system is essentially a controlled electrochemical cell; corrosion on the protected structure is shifted to the anode. When the anode material is coupled to steel, they behave anodically and discharge current.In this work, magnesium used as sacrificial anode for the protection of carbon steel rod that buried in soil with resistance of 1000, 1400, 1800, and 2200Ω/cm that simulate wide range of resistance of Iraqi soil.Potential distribution in different positions between sacrificial anode and the protected structure was measured
with respect to copper - copper sulfate electrode, showing that the conditions for the sacrificial anode for the protection of carbon steel rod and simulate with contours.The result show that the increasing of soil resistivity is reduces anode life and impairs its
performance. In addition, the changing of sacrificial anode is important because it consumed therefore, it is important to optimize the distance of sacrificial anode from protected structure according to soil resistivity so that avoiding the polarization that causes high consumption rate of anode.

Determination of Olive Oil Kerr Constant for Electro Optical Applications

Anwaar A. Al-Dergazly; Ali A. Shaki; Omar Adnan Abbas

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 7-14

Electro optics effects are important branches of nonlinear optics. In this research olive oil has been chosen to study its electro optical properties. Olive oil as an organic compound has a centro symmetric molecular structure which means that it has quadratic electro optical properties represented by Kerr effect. These electro
optical properties such as transmittance versus applied voltage and birefringence versus the square value of the applied electric field were measured. These properties are obtained for the two types of olive oil (virgin and refined) by analyzing of these properties, the Kerr constant and Kerr coefficient for two types of olive oil have been found at different wavelengths.

Theoritical Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage using Phase Change Materials Capsules for Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation System

Hayder Mohammad Jaffal

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 15-35

This paper presents a theoretical analysis on packed bed thermal energy storage using phase change material (PCM) to improve the performance of solar organic Rankine cycle power generation system by extending its operational time demand to the night. The transient behavior of packed bed thermal energy storage using spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax as a storage unit has been studied
numerically by finite difference technique for charging and discharging process .The effects of different parameters such as inlet temperature, mass flow rate, bed porosity , diameter of capsule and turbine inlet temperature have shown to be dominant parameters in determining the effective thermal efficiency of the solar ORC. It is seen that, turbine inlet temperature is plays an
important role in the geometrical parameters of the packed bed
.Comparison between theoretical results and experimental results of previous study for solar water heating system has been carried out where good agreement is noticed.

Influence of Tool Geometry on the Quality and Mechanical Properties of FSW Weldment for Al-alloy (7020-T53)

Muhammed Abdul-Sattar; Moneer Hameed Tolephih; Muhsin Jaber Jweeg

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 36-49

In this paper the influence of tool geometry and welding parameters (rotating speed and travel speed) on the quality and mechanical properties by using friction stir welded joints for (7020-T53) aluminum alloy.
Three types of tool geometry variables were used ( pin, shoulder and shoulder inclination), internal defect (tunnel) was detected by using X-Ray radiography for all samples which are welded at welding parameters (rotating speed and travel speed), perfect tool geometry that gives defect free was by increasing pin diameter with threaded ,increasing shoulder diameter and shoulder inclination (2o) for safety purpose radiography test was also performed to examine defect free of weldments (increasing tool dimensions and pin threaded gives increasing stir and heat input).
The effect of welding parameters (rotation and travel speed) using tool geometry that gives defect free were investigated using different mechanical tests including (tensile, bending and microhardness). Macro and microstructure change during (FSW) process were studied and different welding zones were investigated using optical microscope. Based on the friction stir welding experiments conducted in this study the result show that aluminum




alloy (7020-T53) can be welded using FSW process, the optimum welding parameters 1400rpm rotational tool speed and 40mm/min travel speed which give the maximum welding efficiency (83%), increasing rotational speed the microhardness increases in weld zone due to decreasing the grain size.

Divergence and Parametric Instability of Belts by using Bolotin Method

Mahmud R. Ismail

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 50-59

Belt is a traveling continuous system.Such a system can subjected to a static divergence and parametric instability. This depend on whether the system parameters are constant or varying with the time ,respectively .In this paper ,instability problem is solved analytically .Bolotin method is used to evaluate the boundaries which separate the stable and instable regions.The present solution is checked with another solution available in the literature where the Variation principle is used .The results showed a good agreement where the maximum error do not exceed 5%. The effect of belt tension and transmitting speed on stability and natural frequency are studied .The results show that increasing belt tension can improve both buckling and parametric instability. Whilst, increasing the speed or its mean value is limited to critical values to avoid buckling or parametric instability, respectively.

Study the Effect of the Sugar Solutions on the Rotation of the Plane of Polarization

Dina J. Matti

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 60-66

This paper deals with studying the effect of the polarization properties of sucrose solution (sugar which is dissolved in distilled water) as an active material and proves the ability of this solution to rotate the plane of polarized light that passes through it with an angle (θ) which is called the angle of rotation.Angle of rotation depends on the molecular structure, the concentration of the dissolved substance, the path length of the light that passes through the solution,and the light wavelength. The method of measuring the transmitted power and angle of rotation is called “optical activity”. Two types of light source are used. The first one was the xenon lamp and chooses three color from it (red, green, and blue) using the proper filters, and the second source was He-Ne laser of wavelength 632nm. In each case, the rotation angle and transmitted power were measured and the specific angle of rotation was calculated at different concentrations of the solution.
The benefit of this work, as an optical laboratory application to measure optical properties of various materials, including circular birefringence (optical rotation). It has been found that the effect of polarized solution on the rotation angles was very large for blue light when comparing with red, because of these measured angles depends on increasing polarized solution concentrations and due to the short wavelength of blue light with respect to green and red lights.

Water Quality Index of 11 Streams Pouring into Um-Alnaaj Marsh

Mohammed Alsaad

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 67-82

This paper assesses the water quality index of 11 streams (rivers) and the receiving UM- AL NAAJ marshland at Misan governorate and how the water quality is improved when entered the marshland. The assessment employ the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) which incorporates three elements: Scope (F 1)- the number of water quality parameters not meeting water quality objectives; Frequency (F 2)- the number of times the objectives are not met; and Amplitude (F 3)- the extent to which the objectives are not met. The index produces a number between 0 (worst) to 100 (best) to reflect the water quality. Iraqi guidelines for
drinking water and the site-specific measured values of 5 variables are used in the index calculation.Variables included in the index calculation were, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, pH, turbidity. The CCME WQI analysis show that the average water quality of the 11 streams, feeding Um-Alnaaj marshland is rated as fair based on 2010 data, meaning that the conditions of the streams were sometimes depart from natural or desirable levels while the quality of water inside the marsh was ranging from good to excellent.

Treatment of Emulsified Oil in Produced Water from Oil wells by Adsorption on to Corn-Cob as Sorbent

Raad Mohamed Alkhalssi; Essam AbdulJalil Saeed; Mohamed Ghazi Khalid

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 83-90

In this work , a fixed –bed system has been used to study the performance of corn-cob as low cost adsorbent for Treatment of dispersed oil droplets in oil-well product water in this system . In effect of initial oil content (600-1500 ppm), volumetric flow rate (2-5L/min), Bed height (25-35cm) and particle size (1.05-1.6mm) were studied. The results show that removal oil efficiency reaches high percent with decreasing of initial oil concentration, volumetric flow rate particle size and increasing of bed height.

Effect of Bearing Elastic Deformation on the Turbulent Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication of Misaligned Plain Journal Bearings

Basim Ajeel Abass; Sudad Nori Ghani

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 91-108

This paper investigates the effect of bearing shell elastic deformation on the steady state behavior of misaligned journal bearings. Performance trends of elastic and rigid bearings with different degree of misalignment (Dm) have been compared. Bearing shell elastic deformation, thermal effects, pressure and temperature variation for a bearing working under turbulent lubrication have been taken into consideration. It is found that misaligned bearings working at higher misalignment coefficients have higher load carrying capacity since the oil film thickness approaches to zero in this case. Considering the effect of bearing shell elastic deformation with the effect of oil film temperature causes lower values of bearing load. Some of the results obtained in this paper have been compared with that published by other workers and found to be in a good agreement.

Studying the Effect of Frequency on Dielectric Properties of Cu Powder reinforced Epoxy Composite Material

Walaa W. Jameel

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 109-113

This paper discussed the effect of frequency on dielectric properties of different weight fraction of Cu powder reinforced epoxy composite materials. Dielectric properties of epoxy material was reinforced with (0, 5, 15, 30, 45) % weight fraction of Cu powder at frequencies ranges ((50Hz -106Hz) at room temperature. The results of this study show these dielectric constants and dielectric losses factor were increased with increasing in weight fraction due to interfacial polarization. The results also, exhibit that dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss factor (ε”) decreased with increasing of frequency account of electric polarization changed with an electric field changed.

Static Contact Angle and Large Water Droplet Thickness Measurements with the Change of Water Temperature

Majid H. Majeed

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 114-128

The sessile droplet method is used to determine the contact angle and the thickness of a large droplet of water (puddle), and the contact angle of a growing droplet experimentally. The measurements are done as the water temperature is varied within the range of 0-90 Co. Five kinds of substrates are used (iron, copper, aluminum, glass and brass) in the present work. It is found that as the temperature of the water increased both the contact angle values and puddle thickness values are decreased. Also it is shown that the contact angle is starting from 90o for very small droplets to a steady value as the droplet increases in size. A curve fitting is done to obtain correlationsfor the variation of contact angle with water temperature values.

Simulation of the Polymer Matrix Composite Reinforced by Metal Fiber

Kadim Khayoun Kehlol

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

In this search we simulate the polymer matrix composite of (epoxy) reinforced with wire of high carbon steel (Steel Reinforced Plastic) undulating and another with bend on the end and characterized of these wires by stiffness and toughness with low cost. Study was that the mechanical properties of the composite material (tensile/compression) by a program (COMSOL Multiphysics 4.1).
Results showed that when a process of tensile specimens reinforced with wire undulating increase power by (175%) , where the power of separation ( 372N) and thus the highest power of the separation of the user interface of the samples reinforced wire with a bend on the end where the magnitude of the separation of the interface(197N) .
The results show that compressive strength of samples of the composite of the basis of epoxy reinforced with steel wires and undulating with endings fit of Bending Strain hanging with the pregnancy and all the samples. Where we note increasing the value of compressive strength of the composite material reinforced with wire bending the ends of the wire rolling.