ISSN: 2521-9154

Volume 19, Issue 1

Volume 19, Issue 1, Spring 2016, Page 50-171


Shear Behavior of Self Compacting Reactive Powder Reinforced Concrete T- beams

Ali H Aziz; Luma A. Zghair; Awadh E. Ajeel

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

The present research can be divided into three categories following the respective three main objectives. The first objective is to develop a self-compacting reactive powder concrete (SCRPC).
The second objective is to study the effect of steel fiber content on mechanical properties of (SCRPC). The third objective is to study the effect of steel fiber content on shear behavior of (SCRPC) RC T-beams. Therefore, five beam specimens were tested, one of which were made with (NSC) (reference beam), while, the others were constructed with (SCRPC) with different steel fiber volume fraction. Besides the beam specimens, a series of casting and testing were carried out to study the properties of (SCRPC) in fresh and hardened states. Experimental results show that the use of (SCRPC) improves the shear resistance and allowing higher forces to be carried through both, web and flange. When the steel volume fraction (Vf) changed from (0%) to (1.5%), the ultimate shear strength increased about (75%) to (91%), while, the cracking load increased about (50%) to (108%). This means the cracking and an ultimate load depends essentially on concrete strength and steel volume fraction.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Shear Transfer of Concrete Specimens Strengthened with CFRP Sheets under Tensile Forces

Abdullkader I. Al-Hadithi; Akram S. Mahmood; Yasmin S. Abdul-Hameed

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 10-26

This study presents experimental and numerical investigations that concern the behavior of pull-off for normal and high strength concrete specimens strengthened with various configurations of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. Three parameters have been investigated; the first is the strength of concrete by casting half of samples as normal strength concrete and the other as high strength concrete. The second parameter is the ratio of reinforcement crossing the shear plane. The third parameter is the CFRP strengthened. Three dimensional finite elements tools with eight-node elements are used to represent concrete, whereas embedded bar element type is used to represent the reinforcement. Nonlinear behavior of concrete in compression, tension and the reduction of the shear modulus due to cracking are be taken into account.
A finite element which was used to represent concrete is three dimensional with eight nodes elements and embedded bar elements to represent the reinforcement. Nonlinear behavior of concrete in compression, tension and the reduction of the shear modulus due to cracking are be taken into account.

Measuring Crop Coefficient For Vineyards

Sabah Anwer Dawood Al masraf

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 27-32

In this paper crop coefficient for vineyard was measure from water consumption or crop evapotranspiration in afield of vineyeard located in Travers City, Michigan State/ United State of America. The objectives were to find it varaities with time as plant grew, and to compare the predicted crop coefficient with the local available values (MSU) and with the recommended values by FAO. Measurements were conducted on the basis of soil water content and weather parameters to calculate crop evapotranspiration (consumptive use) and reference evapotranspiration by means of Penman-Monteith model, respectively. The results of the statistical analysis of error showed that the predicted crop coefficients were always less than the local values (Michigan State) for all months of study period except for August (late- mid of the season) where the predicated value was more than the local one. Additionally the absolute error showed that the lowest error was in June, July, and August and the highest value was in May with an average absolute error value for all months 0.2. While, the predicated crop coefficients were almost close to FAO values for all months except for May and August with an average absolute error value for all months 0.085. Moreover, the statistical analysis by using root mean square difference (RMSD), relative error (RE), and mean bias error (MBE) to compare predicated and FAO vineyard crop coefficient were: 0.099, 18% and 0.01, respectively, while for predicated and local values were: 0.25, 35%, and – 0.17, respectively.

Determination of the Safe Orientation and Dip of a Rock Slope in an Open Pit Mine in Syria Using Kinematic Analysis

Maan Helal; Kinan ZainAlabideen

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 33-45

This paper presents a method for choosing the orientation and the dip of an excavated rock slope, to safely serve the intended function of the slope or the excavation.
The investigated slope is a rock slope in an open pit mine in Knifes, Syria.This mine is a phosphate mine. The phosphate is covered with the sedimentary organic limestone rocks, which are the subject of this research.
The kinematic analysis method is adopted here to analyze the slope stability. This method uses stereographic projection principles and applies them in rock slope stability analysis. Open Stereo program of stereographic projection was used to obtain the required projections.
A particular case study was performed in order to ensure that the studied part of the slope is safe, and a general case study was performed to present a suggested procedure for choosing safe dip and dip direction to the face of the studied slope.
In this research, the results present the possible choices of the orientation and the dip of the excavated rock slope, to enlarge the open pitmine safely in future.

Vibration Analysis of Prosthesis for the through knee Amputation

Mohsin J. Jweeg; Jana S. Jaffar

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 46-55

Prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing body part, lost by injury or missing from birth, or supplements, and a defective body part. Through-knee amputation should be considered as an alternative to trans femoral amputation. This work involves an experimental part to measure the Ground Reaction Force (GRF), and pressure distribution for both old and new prostheses. The interface pressure (IP) between leg and socket was measured by using F-Socket sensor. The natural frequency was measured using impact hammer test, while the vibration data (acceleration and frequency) are measured at the last stage for the patient at different positions during the gait cycle. The results show that the GRF for the designed prosthesis Gait cycle time in the left leg is equal to (1.50sec) and right leg is equal to(1.58sec). The maximum interface pressure (IP) is recorded in the Tensor fascia lata regions in the thigh part with (408KPa). Results show that the maximum vibration data was found at the thigh region with (2.09 m/s^2 and 2.66 Hz) for acceleration and frequency respectively. At thigh region for the old prosthesis and the maximum Vibration data was found at the thigh with (4.44 m/s^2 and 3.12 Hz) for acceleration and frequency respectively at thigh region for the designed prosthesis for the same person. From the hammer test, the natural frequency was found that for the first mode of the old prosthesis 33.2 Hz and for the designed prosthesis was 46.8 Hz.

Investigation on Thermal and Acoustic Properties of Hybrid Polymer Composite Reinforced by Date Palm Fibers and Rice Husks as a Construction Material

Ammar Mousa Hasan

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 56-65

This paper presents the versatility of date palm fibers and rice husks and its applications in different branches of engineering, particularly in civil engineering as a construction material. date palm fiber and rice husks are one of the natural materials abundantly available in tropical regions, and is extracted from agricultural or agro-industrial residues as an insulating material resource has various economic and environmental advantages such as reduction in the materials dependency on imported insulating and minimization of waste disposal. In this study date palm fibers and rice husks waste particleboards as insulation boards were manufactured. The boards were fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix reinforced by rice husk and date palm fibers they have a total volume fraction (30%) with the ratios of (0/30, 5/25, 10/20 15/15, 20/10, 25/5 and 30/0) volume fraction of rice husk / date palm fibers Two groups of hybrid composite were prepared depending on the fibers length (palm fibers its length 2-3 mm and short fibers its length less than 1mm). The fabricated boards were evaluated for the thermophysical (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) properties and acoustic properties (sound absorption coefficient) for all the samples prepared. The results showed that thermal and acoustic insulation properties increase with increased the volume fraction of date palm fiber and rice husks in hybrid composite, whereas decrease with increased fiber length, moreover the thermal insulator of the polyester composite reinforced with rice husk gave a better thermal insulator whereas polyester composite reinforced by date palm fibers gave the best acoustic insulation.

A Numerical Study of the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Different Shapes of Microchannels

Ammar A. Abed; Wissam H. Khalil

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 66-75

Microchannels are the current interest for use in compact heat exchanger , micro reactors , very large scale integrated system where there is a desire of high heat transfer performance. The mentioned electronic equipment are important part of modern life. The dissipation of heat from these equipment is very necessary for the proper functioning of these instruments. Microchannels provide high heat transfer coefficients because of their small hydraulic diameter. In this work, a numerical investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer in different shapes of microchannels have been presented, square notches with different number are added to the rectangular microchannel to create different shapes of MCHS. A three dimensional computational fluid dynamics were built using a commercial package FLUENT to investigate the conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in aluminum-based rectangular microchannel heat sink. The MCHS performance is evaluated in terms of temperature profile , Nusselt number and friction factor. Water is used in the present study as the working fluid. The results show that the heat transfer rate and Nusselt number are increased for the shapes that have notches compared with the original channel as Reynolds number increase. The Results conducted from this study were compared with that published in the previous literature and there were a good agreement obtained.

Effect of Cool and Hot Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Performance of Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine Fueled With Blends of Diesel and Methanol

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan; Qahtan Adnan Abass

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 76-85

Performance of a direct injection multi-cylinders diesel engine fueled with diesel-methanol blends using hot and cool EGR were investigated. The influence of some engine variables such as equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing were studied. The test were conducted with hot EGR and repeated with cool EGR. The results were compared with that from engine operation with neat diesel and 90% diesel+10% methanol.
The results show that different behaviors were existed in the combustion between the diesel-methanol blends than that of diesel fuel. EGR which is a useful tool in reducing NOx affects engine performance largely. Adding methanol to diesel reduced the harm effects of EGR on engine performance by increasing available oxygen inside combustion chamber. Cool EGR gives better thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (bp) compared to hot EGR. Advancing injection timing improved engine performance when EGR was added.

An investigation to the Effect of Copper Addition on the Characteristics of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

Mohammed Rahman; Ayad M. Takhakh

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 86-91

The effect of Cu addition on the physical and mechanical properties of Nickel-Titanium (weight percentage ) shape memory alloy were investigated , density , porosity , compression strength ,Shape Effect (strain recovery), ,micro-hardness , Conducted to estimate the Cu effect ,a Different amount of Cu (2%,5%,10% ) weight percent were added with different compacting
Pressure (450MPa and 600MPa). Significant effect on master alloys properties especially the alloys that have 5%Cu and 10%Cu has been observed.

Harmonic Distortion In The Flow Signals Of Externally Mounted Capacitive Spatial Filter

Marwa Malik Hassooni; Abbas Ahmad Al Shalchi

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 92-97

This paper investigates the performance of some windows on the flow signals that are generated from the planar capacitance spatial filter (PCSF) according to the moving of the solid particle in the channel of the filter. The finite-difference equations are solved using successive over relaxation (SOR) methods, The waveforms show that the response of the PCSF is spatially-biased towards particle flowing closer to the plane of sensing electrodes and that the resulting flow signal is non-sinusoidal. The total harmonic distortion (THD) content on the flow signals are calculated with respect to the fundamental frequency of the power spectrum density through a specific quantitative criterion. This paper comprises a comparative study among three types of windows; Hanning, Hamming, and a suboptimal window called the Kaiser window. The effect of particle flying heights and relative permittivity on the THD of the flow signal was examined.

Batch and Continuous Adsorption of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solution Using Alhagi Forks and Tea Husk

Usama Akram Saed

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 98-106

The removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution by natural media was directed in a batch adsorption then in continuous operation. Alhagi forks were collected from road side and tea husk was get it from kitchen, these were need times to cleaning from contaminated waste and colors. In batch mode the pH, time of contacting, adsorbent dose and initial metal ion concentration were determined for the influence of Cr (VI) on the two media. pH=2 was the best acidity of solution and get 99.5% removal for alhagi forks and 98.5% for tea husk. The equilibrium time also indicated at 30min for alhagi forks and 50min for tea husk and the optimum weight of media were used are 0.5g/50ml from alhagi forks and 0.6g/50ml from tea husk. The breakthrough for alhagi forks is better from tea husk for the same conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were conducted to describe the isotherm and isotherm constants for the two media. Consequences indicated that adsorption of Cr(VI) consumption could be described by Langmuir and Freundlich equations.

Experimental study on Ion Exchange Rate of Calcium Hardness in Water softening process Using Strong Acid Resin DOWEX HCR S/S

Natheer Nori Ismail

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 107-114

Water Softening process is one of the techniques used to minimize the hardness of drinking water by exchanging the present of hardness ions especially Mg+2 and Ca+2 ions by Na+1 ion. For this purpose, strong cationic resin can be used, which is efficient in separation method applied in water treatment. The aim of the present work was to determine the efficient flow of softening column (softener), and to specify the best properties of resin which included the particle size at constant ambient temperature ( 270 C) and pH = 7.2 . This study was concentrated on the behavior of Ca+2 ion by passing CaCl2 solution with certain concentrations over cationic resin of type (DOWEX HCR S/S) to replace the Ca+2 ion by Na+1 on in feed solution to produce NaCl. Process parameters investigated were: concentration, flow of feed , the size of a certain type of cationic resin , the effect of superficial velocity rate and the diameter of resin bed.

Study on the Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Gasoil-Brine Mixture in presence of acid

Basim O. Hasan; Sahir M. Aziz

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 115-123

Corrosion tests of carbon steel in two phase flow of two immiscible liquids (CaCO3 solution-gasoil mixture) under different operating conditions of temperature, agitation velocity, and phase fractions, were carried out using weigh loss method. Flat blade disc turbine mixer was used to simulate the two phase flow conditions. In two immiscible phases tests, the ranges of operating parameters were agitation velocities of 0 - 1200 rpm, temperature of 25- 45 oC, gasoil volume percent of 1-10% vol. The effect of presence of acids such as HCl and H2SO4 on the corrosion rate in two immiscible phases mixture was also investigated under different conditions. The corrosion rate in brine-gasoil mixture had unstable trend with concentration of gasoil and rotational velocity.

Picture Archiving and Communication System Design and Implementation

Sama Salam Samaan

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 124-136

PACS (Picture archiving and communication system) has been vastly introduced as a reliable alternative to the conventional film- and paper-based healthcare system. It has been in existence for several years and has become an integral part of the infrastructure of radiology and imaging departments across the world. Services provided by PACS establish a platform for the diagnosis of different diseases. PACS serves as a more convenient means of teaching students of radiology, it also reduces transmissions time requirement for referral cases and access time to images and radiological report over the network and improves on the time of patient consultation. In this paper we discuss the construction of (PACS) for hospitals that provides electronic storage, retrieval, manipulation, distribution and presentation of medical images using a popular format named DICOM. This research work implements a PACS model with the incorporation of new features. Its objectives were achieved: converting non DICOM images to DICOM standard and reduced transmission time and storage space requirements of radiological images. The model is implemented using the visual studios.

Self-Phase Modulation of Silicon Nanostructure Produced By Laser Induced Etching

Hadeel F. Shaker; Bassam G. Rasheed

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 137-144

A diode lasers of 532nm and 473nm wavelengths were used to produce silicon nanostructure by laser induced etching process for n-type silicon wafer of orientation <100>. The laser irradiation was carried out using different laser power density of (2, 5, 10 and 20 W/cm2 for recorder radiation time (4 min.). Optical fringes due to self-phase modulation are observed. Those fringe patterns depend on the size and depth of the nanostructure. It is found that fast changes in fringes when using short wavelength that indicates to further etching to produced smaller nanostructure at short irradiation time, this procedure could provide valuable details about silicon nanostructure during the etching process (in-situ). Fringes were represented by theoretical model to evaluate the size and change in the refractive index. The AFM images formation of uniform size distribution of 60 nm mean value when laser power density of 20 W/cm2 was used for 15 minutes.

Simulation Study of Prostate Tissue Ablation by Pulsed Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG and Thulium Fiber Surgical Lasers with Minimum Carbonization Effect

Munqith S. Dawood; Haider Monaf

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 145-160

The laser-tissue interaction and its thermal effects depend on the parameters of both of the tissue and the used laser. In this paper the laser ablation efficiency of prostate tissue has been studied theoretically by using pulsed Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG and Thulium fiber surgical lasers. Different levels of energies were considered for these lasers, which operate in 20 and 40 Hz pulse repetition frequencies (prf) to evaluate the prostate tissue temperature rise up to the required ablation state. The Gambit program was used first to simulate the geometrical shape of the treated prostate tissue, then the radiative transfer equation (RTE) of the ANSYS Fluent program was applied to simulate and solve the ablation process equations. The results showed that the low rates of repetition frequencies and low laser energies increase the allowed time for safe ablation operation before reaching the carbonization state. It was found also that although the Ho:YAG laser vaporizes prostate tissue faster than the Thulium fiber laser did, the pulsed Thulium fiber laser produced much lower temperature side effects like coagulation, hyperthermia and carbonization of the rest of the prostate tissue, which is surrounding the ablated zone for the same applied average powers by the other two lasers.

Compartmental and Non-Compartmental Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Extended Release Diclofenac Sodium Tablet

Uns Qusai; Asma Hameed; Khawla Hameed Rasheed

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 161-165

Compartmental modeling describes the movement of a substance from one compartment to another. it is concerned with maintaining correct chemical levels in the body and their correct fluid volumes. From another side non compartmental analysis have many benefits over compartmental analysis like it requires less experience and skill on the part of the modeler, in-vivo study made on seven healthy volunteers, plasma concentration versus time obtained then both compartmental and non compartmental analysis applied to data, the clearance, volume of distribution, half life, and area under the curve from zero to infinity were comparable to each other for tow methods, The correlation between observed and predicted plasma concentration versus time profiles using compartmental analysis was 0.95.

Articular Cartilage Surface Topography and Roughness in Frozen Tissue Samples Using Optical Coherence Microscopy

Sadiq Jafer Abbass

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 166-171

This paper describes a method to visualize the topography of the surface of cartilage. Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) technique has been used to get two dimensional images of frozen tissue samples of bovine articular cartilage. Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) is a combination of optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy. Coherence gate from OCT and confocal gate from confocal microscopy can achieve higher resolution and deeper penetration depth. The precise three-dimensional topography of the cartilage surfaces has been obtained. The full-image roughness, for frozen samples has been obtained.

The University Education in Architectural Engineering Department in Iraq is a Basic Foundation in Sustainable Development for the Society

Susan Abed Hassan

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 0-0

The university education represents one of the civilized basic foundation for societies , for it bears the scientific development flag, as well as it plays fundamental role in serving society, with submitting fundamentals educational and society and economy and humanity even spiritual and emotional for the society. And has essential role in graduating educated peoples working with needs of the society.
The architectural engineering department is one of the major universities institutions that effect and affected with the society, though it made from and it tool to make its professional leadership that relate with the sustainable development for the society.
This research studies the role of university education in the architectural engineering department as an important base that serves sustainable development for it society. Though review for earliest studies and examples from over the world. Than studying the role of architectural engineering departments in Iraq in the society and submit visions and submissions to develop the sustainable society.

Proportional Preferences in Mesopotamian Architecture

Saba Sami Mehdi; Samar Khadim Handhal

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 0-0

Proportion and proportionality have been one of the active concerns in studying the aesthetics of art and architecture. Researchers have always sought for the origin of proportion into the art and Architecture of ancient Egypt and Classical Greece. Studies also have examined Mesopotamian art, but not its architecture. This paper investigates Proportion and proportionality in Mesopotamian architecture. The research is based on the assumption that: any architectural decision concerning the measurements of any major built space was subject to the effect of a symbolically favorite proportion. This proportion is related to the symbolism of numbers, widely known in Mesopotamia. The paper aims to unravel the preferred proportion that was implemented in Mesopotamian architecture, by exploring the proportions of the main inner and outer spaces in several buildings of the neo- Sumerian and old Babylonian epochs during which mathematics flourished and consciousness of numbers got matured.

Plurality of Meanings Strategy in the Architecture outcomes "Study of infinite meaning at deconstruction"

Mohammed K. Mhaibes; Saad M. Hmoud; Haitham A. A. Alshamari

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 0-0

Regardless of the general attitude of the architectural (deconstruction) movement and philosophical dimensions, But what concerns us is obtaining everything wholesome and values, including service and prove its concepts and mechanisms for the production of architectural shapes, So the search cared extraction strategy plurality of meaning and use them in any product architect without belonging to deconstruction movement.
The thrill, meditation, fun, fascination, exaggeration, confusion, giving the impression, innovation and all other effects of psychological and sensory generated Pulled outcomes meanings in the architectural field to lend integrated architecture and recipients at the same time, The deconstruction particularize so through several mechanisms of deep philosophical after can be employed in any product is the most important (difference and interfaces, displacement, attendance, impact, immediate and dealing with the temporal dimension, vaccination).
Search found that because of this strategy, "the plurality meaning" inherent (with most of its mechanisms) as a need for basic architectural movements, but the other is almost inherent in every product architect looking for the generation of meaning.

Simulation of Attractive Interaction Reaction for Binary Alloys

Rahi Abid Hassan Al-Obaidy; Kadum K. Kahlol; Fadul Husan Ali

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 0-0

In this research the attractive interaction reactions of binary alloy solidification have been simulated. A mean - field kinetic equations have been used in this investigation in order to simulate the crystal lattice of two metals of complete solid and liquid solubility ( compete miscibility ) with solid solution types. The simulation was conducted in a dimensionless method. The results showed that the maximum free energy f(p) decreased to the minimum level that is (-0.052) at (0.96) and (0.04)weight percentage concentration for the A and B metals respectively. On the other hand, the free energy increased until it reached its maximum level (-0.005) at a (0.5) concentration for both metals. Results also showed that the maximum free energy values gave a symmetrical trend before and after the concentration balance of the two metals used. A pseudo eutectic alloy has been formed at (0.5) concentration for the two metals at thermal energy level (KT) equal to (1). Also a symmetrical trend has been formed for concentration values of both metals before and after the eutectic alloy formation.