ISSN: 2521-9154

Volume 19, Issue 2

Volume 19, Issue 2, Autumn 2016, Page 186-426


Eggshell Powder as An Adsorbent for Removal of Cu (II) and Cd (II) from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Ziad Tark Abd Ali; Mohammed A. Ibrahim; Huda M. Madhloom

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 186-193

The adsorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions onto eggshell was investigated. The effects of contact time, initial pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, initial metal concentration, agitation speed, and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cd(II) were 8.4 and 7.01 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, Enthalpy change and Entropy change have been calculated. These thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was thermodynamically spontaneous under natural conditions and the adsorption was endothermic in nature. Experimental data were also tested in terms of adsorption kinetics, the results illustrated that the adsorption process was following pseudo second- order kinetics. In addition Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis suggests that Cu (II) and Cd (II) interact with metal oxides and -OH functional group present in eggshell powder.

Effect of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Musab Aied Qissab; Shaymaa Tareq Abbas

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 194-201

The main goal of this paper is to study the effect of different concentrations of long multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and short MWCNTs on the mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and static modulus of elasticity).Ultrasonic pulse velocity test was also used to evaluate the porosity of concrete nanocomposite. 81 specimens with MWCNTs of (0.03%, 0.045%, and 0.06%) by weight of dry cement were tested after 28 days of curing. Dispersion of MWCNTs was achieved by using Ultrasonic Liquid Processors with surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy SEM images for micro-crack bridging was conducted to examine the bonding between MWCNTs and the cement paste. Test results showed that the addition of very low concentrations of MWCNTs led to a reduction in the porosity of concrete composite and significant increase in the amount of high stiffness C-S-H gel. Specimens reinforced with (0.03% short CNT, 0.03% and 0.045% long CNT) showed an increase in density about (1.63%, 0.82%) respectively. In general reinforcing concrete with MWCNTs led to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete nanocomposites compared to the reference samples.

Rehabilitation of Damaged Pier-Pile Joints in Tooz Bridge Using RC Confined By Steel Casing

Ali H. Aziz

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 202-212

Over the past years, Tooz bridge has been subjected to severely torrents led to erosion and collapse of soil at pile heads during execution, causing some damages to the heads of piles (joint between the pier and the pile) and its aspects. Technical reports indicated that the piles are implemented in diameter of (150 cm) with depths ranging from (12m) to (15m) and these ranges are more than what is required if we take into account soil capacity in this depths is over (20 ton/m2), and the maximum capacity is within limits that are designed for. Test results indicated that the concrete of piles have a compressive strength of (31 MPa) to (59 MPa) with ultimate pile capacity ranged from (600 tons) to (720 tons) with deflection not exceed (5mm). The site surveys records deviations in location and coordinates of some piles (in varying degrees) in the longitudinal and transverse directions. After technical meeting between the constructing company and the consultant team, two methods for treatment have proposed, the first method is construct of pile cap around the damaged joints, while, the second method is using RC confined by steel casing. To save the time and cost, and to minimize the dead loads on piles, the second proposal is adopted and the structural analysis indicated that the used method is saved.

Shear Strength Prediction for Two-Piles Caps Using Empirical Equations

Safaa D. Abdul-Hameed; Ihsan A. Saib; Riyadh J. Aziz

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 213-227

This study involves analyzing of two piles-caps together with other available tested pile caps in literature. Many expressions are proposed in the current stydy to predict the diagonal cracking and ultimate shear strengths of pile caps using the nonlinear multiple-regression analysis to the available experimental data. The proposed expressions have minimum values of mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE), while they have maximum values for coefficient of multiple determinations (R2).
For the prediction of diagonal cracking shear strength, two proposed expressions were compared with the available equations. The analysis of pile caps using these equations indicates that the proposed equations results in accurate values closer to experimental results than the available equations. While for the prediction of ultimate shear strength, two proposed expressions were compared with the available equations. The analysis of pile caps using these equations indicate that the proposed equations results in good agreement when compared with the results of the available equations.

Finite Element Modeling and Theoretical Analysis of SFRSCC Composite Beams Strengthened by Bottom Tensioned Steel Plates

Laith Khalid Al-Hadithy; Maryam Abdul Jabbar Hassan

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 228-245

This research concern finite element modelling and theoretical analysis for evaluating the effect of steel fibers on the behaviour of composite beams of tensioned steel-concrete interfaces with shear connectors. Based on available experimental tests of seven composite beams consisting of rectangular reinforced concrete prisms (125*200*1900)mm strengthened by bottom steel plates interconnected by shear connectors, of diverse contents of steel fiber volume fraction (0.0%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.8%), shear connectors distributions and plates thicknesses and lengths. Each beam was loaded up-to failure under the influence of two concentrated loads to monitor its failure mode, record the load and deflection values at its mid-span and also register values of the final relative end slip. The proposed nonlinear ANSYS (version 14) model for the seven test beams includes modelling of concrete, steel rebars, steel plates and the steel plate-concrete interface, where the high agreement of the ANSYS-model predictions with the experimental evidence is a definite witness to the reliability of the numerical model. The maximum differences in ultimate loads and mid-span deflection values for all beams are 8.1%% and 7.8%, respectively.

Reliability of Water Resources Quality Monitoring Program Data

Sabah Obaid Hamad Al-Shujairi

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 246-254

Data are a vital component of water resources management activities. The consequences of using poor quality data include faulty decisions, higher risk to the environment or human health, wasted resources and loss of credibility. Box-whisker plot, cations-anions balance and relative total dissolved solids (TDS) to electrical conductivity (EC) ratio were used to examine validity of water quality data. These techniques and reliability check applied on water quality data of Tigris river in 2013 to ensure that the data can be used for decision making in the management of water resources with a high level of confidence, improve the reliability of water quality assessments, and discovering some uncertainty. Box-whisker plot technique has been used to detect outliers and summarize data to show the centrality, spread and skewness of data along Tigris river monitoring stations. The results showed that about 5% of data classified as outliers. An analysis of data by using percent of error in cation-anion balance technique to check reliability of data showed that 21.6 % of data exceeded the permit level of error in ions balance. Relative TDS/EC ratio accuracy check shows that the data agree with the range 0.55 to 0.75 with exception in stations from T11 to T16B where the ratio slightly less than 0.55. Also the results showed that they are not entirely consistent with the nature and the characteristics of the river water quality especially at the first section about 400 km from T1 to T10 where the bicarbonate is the domain anion and final section about 300 km from T29 to T33 where sulphate is the domain anion. Analysis of
Data showed that the data results have serious measuring or sampling errors, which means that the resultant data quality is insufficient for drawing reliable conclusions about water quality and for supporting decision making with high level of confidence. Applying quality control and quality assurance procedures have been required to ensure validity and reliability of data.

Study the Mechanical Properties and Numerical Evaluation of Friction Stir Processing (FSP) for 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys

Kadhim K. Resan; Ayad M. Takhakh; Ali A. Aslman

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 255-264

Friction stir processing is a new method of changing the properties of a metal through intense, localized plastic deformation ,this process mixes the material without changing the phase (by melting or otherwise) and creates a micro structure with fine, equiaxedgrains, It is used to improve the micro structural properties of metals. In this paper , the enhancement of mechanical properties of friction stir welding specimens at variable rotation speeds (1100,1300 and 1500 rpm ) with constant feed speed(60 mm/min) for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy is studied by using the friction stir processing method at the same variable rotation speed and feed speed in order to transform a heterogeneous micro structure to a more homogeneous, refined micro structure. The best results of the weld gained at the parameter 60 mm/min weld speed and 1300 RPM rotation speed for the FSW and FSP where the efficiency reaches to 84.61% for FSW and 89.05% for FSP of the ultimate tensile strength of the parent metal .This research is developed a finite element simulation of friction stir processing (FSP) of 6061-T6 Aluminum alloy. Numerical simulations are developed for thermal conductivity, specific heat and density to know the relationship of these factors with peak temperature, The simulation model is tested with experimental results. The results of the simulation are in excellent comparison with the experimental results.

Influence of partial replacement TiO2 nanoparticles on the compressive and flexural strength of ordinary cement mortar

Mohammed M. Salman; Khalid M. Eweed; Amjed M. Hameed

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 265-270

In this paper, the compressive and flexural strength together with microstructural analysis of mortar by partial replacement of cement with Nano-TiO2 particles has been studied. TiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter of 15 nm were used with four different contents of 0.25%, 0.75%, 1.25% and 1.75% by weight. the compressive and flexural strength tests were done after curing at the ages of 7-days as early age, 28-days as standard age. The Nano-cement mortar was prepared using cement-sand ratio of 1:3 by weight with water-binder ratio (w/b ratio) as 0.5. The results showed that the compressive and flexural strength of the cement mortars with TiO2 were higher than pure cement mortar. The ultimate strength of Nano-cement mortar was gained at 0.75% of cement replacement. The enhancement in compressive and flexural strength were 19.33 % and 15.1% respectively at 28 days. SEM study about the micro structure of cement mortar containing nanoparticles and ordinary cement mortar showed that TiO2 nanoparticles fills the pores completely and reduces the large crystals of Ca(OH)2 and the hydrate products are denser and compact.

Fluidic Jet Vectoring at Subsonic Flow ay Using Counter Flow Method

Ali Abdul Almuhsen Al-Asady; Omar Hussien Ali

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 271-285

Experimental & Computational and investigations of thrust vectoring by using counter flow method had been carried out in the present work. The experimental investigation included design and construction of test rig with rectangular duct with aspect ratio of (4.4) in order to investigate the effect of various geometric variables on thrust vectoring angle. Set of experiment at tests was carried out over the mass flow ratio (Ṁs/Ṁp) range 0 ≤ (Ṁs/Ṁp) ≤ 0.31 with secondary slot gap height g/H= (0.0294, 0.0588, 0.088 and 0.1176) and coanda surface diameter R/H= (1.176, 2.353, 3.529and 4.705).
Load measurements were obtained using four load cells. The computational investigation involved a 3D numerical solution by FLUENT Software for some of experimental cases.
Experimental results show that the increase in secondary jet blowing rate lead to increasing in the jet vectoring angle, there are three zone can be observed, dead zone appears at low mass flow ratios, then followed by control region in which continuous thrust vector control can be achieved followed by a saturation region. The length of the dead zone’ was also dependent on the size of the Coanda surface diameter which a small diameter resulted in a prolonged ‘dead zone’ range, and the secondary gap height to the primary gap height had inverse relation with jet vectoring angle. The investigation shows that both the experimental and computational results obtained follow a similar trend line. Mach number is less than 0.5.

Effect of Cutting Parameters on Wear and Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel (316L) Using Milling Process

Ali Abbar Khleif; Mostafa Adel Abdullah

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 286-292

Flank wear width is generally recognized as the key indicator for tool life. In the milling process, several factors that influence on the wear of the tool) the material of workpice, the tool material, cutting conditions, the shape of a tool, machining time). In the experiments stainless steel 316L was used and cutting parameter with constant cutting tool type, cutting feed ,depth of cut and four spindle speeds(350,550,930 and 1100) rpm. The cutting tool wear was measured using optical microscope. The results showed an increase in cutting speed lead to decreases surface roughness (2.648,2.285,1.878 and 1.526) µm respectively with constant machine parameter and give indicating for tool wear which increase with the increase roughness of production surface.

Comparison Performance of the Elliptical Flow Condenser for a Domestic Refrigerator with Wire-on-Tube Condenser

Dheya Ghanim Mutasher

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 293-300

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the performance of a novel design of condenser consisted of number of loops as elliptical shape for domestic refrigeration system and comparison with wire-on-tube condenser. The purpose of this study is designing and manufacturing a new type of condensers (Elliptical condenser) that depends on the experimental data by heat exchanger performance under various operating conditions. The experiment was conducted with a refrigerator designed to work with HFC134a, under no load and with loads (1.5,3 and 12 litters of water). The results showed that the work done by the compressor decreases with elliptical condenser, and then the power consumption also decreases about (0.3Amp to 0.5Amp). Also, the effects of shape change of the condenser were very important in enhancement heat transfer rate and reduction the frictional loss as result of reducing the pressure drop in the condenser. Therefore, the elliptical condenser can be used instead of the wire-on-tube air cooled condenser in a domestic refrigeration system.

Experimental Study of the Thermal Characteristics for a Thermosyphon Pipe with Finned Condenser

Obaid T. Fadhil; Mustafa B. Al Hadithi; Harith M. Al Hiti

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 301-309

The thermosyphon pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal characteristics of a thermosyphon pipe with finned condenser (free convection condenser) is studied experimentally. The thermosyphon pipe is manufactured from copper. Distilled deionized water is used as a working fluid, the pipe is charged at filling ratio equal to 50% of the evaporator volume. Annular fins manufactured from aluminum are installed on the outer surface of the condenser section. The thermosyphon pipe is tested experimentally at different input power (2 W, 5 W, 10W, 15 W, 20 W, 25 W, and 40 W) and different inclination angle (30o, 60o, and 90o from horizontal). The results show that the increase in the input power leads to increase in the thermosyphon pipe operating temperature, while the thermal resistance decreases with increasing the input power. Also the results showed the thermal performance of the pipe is improved when the pipe is positioned at inclination angle of 30o comparing with the inclination angles 60o, and 90o.

Experimental Investigation for the Thermal performance of Modified Closed Wet Cooling Tower

Qasim Saleh Mahdi; Hayder Mohammad Jaffal

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 310-326

Researchers and designers keenly seek to improve the performance of cooling towers because of the extensive impact on the work and efficiency of the systems concerned to these towers. For this purpose, a Closed Wet Cooling Tower (CWCT) modified with added packing was designed, manufactured and tested for cooling capacity of 9 kW in Iraq. A series of experiments was carried out at different operational and conformational parameters. Operational parameters demonstrate: air flow rate, spray water flow rate, cooling water flow rate, inlet cooling water temperature and inlet air wet bulb temperature.
Conformational parameters indicate: height of packing used and location of packing. The results showed a significant performance improvement when using packing with CWCT under the heat exchanger and above the heat exchanger as compared to CWCT. Empirical correlations are obtained to predict water film heat transfer coefficient and air-water mass transfer coefficient considering the influences of operational parameters.

Vibration Suppression Control for a Flexible Beam with Sliding Mode Observer

Shibly Ahmed Al-Samarraie; Mohsin N. Hamzah; Imad Abdulhussein Abdulsahib

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 327-341

In this study, the vibration suppression of smart structure is performed by using piezoelectric patch structure. The smart structure consists of a beam, as a host structure, and piezoelectric patches, attached to the surface of the beam, as actuation and sensing elements. Two sources of instabilities, namely, the observer spillover and the control spillover, are considered in the current design of the controller based on a reduced order model of the large scale system.
To design a controller, that will attenuate the vibration, the balance realization is used to select the reduced order model that is most controllable and observable. Eight state is selected for the reduced model in the present work.
The sliding mode observer, which based on the equivalent control, is designed to estimate eight states of the reduced model where the state estimation error is proved bounded. By using the estimated state via sliding mode observer an optimal LQR controller is designed that attenuate the vibration of a smart cantilever beam using piezoelectric element. To overcome the control spillover problem, an avoidance condition was derive, that will ensure the asymptotic stability for the proposed vibration control design.
The numerical simulations are preformed to test the vibration attenuation ability of the proposed optimal control. For 10 mm initial tip displacement, the piezoelectric actuator found able to reduce the tip displacement to about 1.3 mm after 15s, while it equal to 7 mm with the open loop case.
The simulations show, also, that the optimal control action is performed with minimum effort where only 30 voltage is required while piezoelectric actuator is saturated at 200 voltage.

The Corrosion Resistance of The Ukrainian Steel Embedded in Concrete after and before quenching

Rahi Abed Hassan Al-Obaidy

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 342-352

The corrosion resistance of the Ukrainian structural steel(0.22%C) and dual-phase steel which produced from it and embedded in concrete was carried out in this investigation, a test specimens of the Ukrainian steel was prepared and heated to a different temperatures )730 .760 , 790 , 820 , 850, 860 , and8700C( for (50 min) holding time and then quenched in water , a dual-phase steel with a different volumetric fraction of martensite (4.5, 12.6 , 21.4 , 43.2 , 64.8 ,85.3 ,and 100%Ms ) was produced respectively .
Test specimens of Ukrainian steel and of dual-phase steel were initially curing in different mediums (Kufa river water, 3.5%NaCl solution, and Arabian gulf water) for (21 Days) , to know the effect of the volumetric fraction of martensite on the corrosion resistance, also another specimens of Ukrainian steel and of (21.4%Ms) dual-phase steel immersed in concrete which conforming to ( Bs 532: Part 2: 1990) and after (1 Day) cured in water for (7) days ,to find the effect of the embedded in concrete on the corrosion resistance were cured to the same above test .
Corrosion rates were measured by using a modified Tafel extrapolation corrosion test technique (ASTM G 109) , which entails voltage control and current quantifications. In addition, the (CMS-105) system was employed for daily observations on steel bars immersed in similar curing conditions . The parameters measured included corrosion potential (Ecorr), corrosion current (Icorr), polarization resistance (Rp), and corrosion rate (Rcorr.) for all specimens .
The experimental results showed that all the dual-phase steel rebar, embedded or not embedded in concrete, have more times corrosion resistant than Ukrainian structural steel for all used mediums (Kufa river water, 3.5%NaCl solution, and Arabian gulf water), because dual-phase steel contains no carbide and most of the carbon atoms are trapped in the martensite structure , and the Ukrainian steel contains the eutectoid carbide that is susceptible to pitting corrosion , and because of the presence of pearlite phase in the microstructure , also there was an effective for the martensite ,s volume percentage (%Ms) on the corrosion resistance of dual-phase steel embedded in concrete ,when it was increased the corrosion resistance increased also.

Natural Frequencies of Multi-Irregular Span Beams under Elastic Supports By Modal Analysis Method

Mahmud Rasheed Ismail; Mohsin Juber Jweeg

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 353-362

Evaluating the natural frequencies of multi- span beams with elastic supports play a major role in vibration designing and optimizing of many structures such as bridges, railways ,pipes and so on The continuity of the boundary conditions ,state space and numerical methods are normally used to investigate the vibration characteristics of such structures .Unfortunately ,such methods lead to high size matrix in dealing with the boundary value problem as the number of spans increase. In the present work, the problem is solved analytically by using Modal Analysis techniques in which the continuous system is discreteized to finite degree of freedoms in terms of the generalized coordinates A proper shape function are employed for describing the system dynamical behavior and satisfying the boundary conditions .In the present method the size of the resulting Eigen matrix depends on the number of mode chosen regardless of the number of spans. With this method wide variety of support configurations can be treated. The validly and convergence of the present method for calculating the natural frequencies is carefully checked by comparing with the exact values for two-span beams with different boundary conditions . It is found that using only (5) modes for the assumed solution gives only 2% error for two span simply supported and free ends beam , however for clamped ends the error is 8% .The present method is further checked by comparing with the Finite Element method the results show good agreements where the error is not increases 1% .The results of the natural frequencies of up to (10) equal and unequal spans beams under different boundary conditions and support stiffness are presented .The results showed that the natural frequencies can be highly controlled by proper choosing of the structure parameters and support stiffness.

Improvement of Micro UAV Performance using Tandem-Wing Design

Omar Abdulrazzak Khudair; Shurouq Adnan Aziz; Huda Ail Munshid; Haedar Muhey Rzokhy; Samiah Fared

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 363-369

The main objective for the present work is related with design of MAV to get high performance and long endurance used for surveillance and monitoring in military and civilian. The most important problem that faced the MAV is flying with low Reynolds numbers (Mach number is too law) and high lift with avoid high drag, the tandem-wing design is sucseceful and more reliable for this purpose because it reduced the drag to a half and gives good aerodynamic chractrastices when it’s compared with the conventional wing design.
The dimensions of a MAV are 120mm length, wing span 130mm ( from tip to tip) and 12g in weight (the standard weight of MAV about 5- 20 g) with rang 50m (is the distance that the aircraft cut from point to another).
The softwares that used in the present work are (Java foil, Soled works, ANSYS, J2) to prove the results.
For the aerodynamic coefficients (CL, CD) were checked for two models (Tandem wing and conventional wing) by using ANSYS. To ensure that the design is successful we made a
Simulation for the design by using (The J2 Universal Tool-Kit for Aircraft Dynamics) software and used to testing the aerodynamic characteristic and performers, stability and control. The major benefits of the tandem wings are to reduce drag to half and increase the lift rather than conventional wing by separating the two wings. Java foil was used to calculate the aerodynamics coefficients for the airfoil.

Recovery of Base Oil from Spent Automobile Oil Using Elementary and Binary Solvent Extraction

Yasser I. Abdulaziz; Shaymaa M. A. Mahmood

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 370-384

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of working parameters such as; type of solvent, solvent ratio, extraction temperature and mixing time on recovery of base oil from used oil by extraction / distillation technique. Bench scale experimental work was performed on spent motor oils collected from different service stations to select the suitable elementary solvents that could extract and regenerate the base oil such as (n- butanol, 2- propanol, and ethanol) and binary mixture of solvents such as (heptane and methyl ethyl ketone ) with (acetone). Different ratios of alcohol solvents to used lubricants from 1:1 to 4:1 (wt. /wt.) at atmospheric pressure with different extraction temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60oC) and different mixing time (15, 30, 45, 60min) were investigated. Moreover, three different types of earth fullers (acidic bentonite, basic bentonite and Dead Sea clay) were tested at different weight from 0.1 to 0.5g/20ml to bleach the base oil color which was regenerated at specific conditions of extracted temperature, solvent ratio and mixing time which were 40oC, 3:1 and 30min respectively.
It has been found that the oil recovery and solvent recovery when using alcohol are progressively increased with increasing solvent/oil ratio to a certain limit. In such a manner that, n-butanol gives the highest extraction yield percentage of oil recovery and solvent recovery comparing with 2- propanol and ethanol. Moreover, higher mixing time granted higher percentage of base oil recovery and solvent recovery for 2- propanol and ethanol solvents. While insignificant effect of mixing time beyond 30min. on the recovery of oil and solvent was recorded with n- butanol.
On the other hand, the oil recovery and solvent recovery are considerably increased with increasing binary solvent amount and with increasing the ratio of polar solvent (acetone) in the individual binary mixture. However, the binary solvent mixture of acetone plus methyl ethyl ketone is indicated to achieve highest extraction yield percentage of oil recovery. The final color of regenerated oil is evidently improved when it was treated with acidic bentonite and activated Dead Sea clay. On the other hand, there was no enhancement color recorded when it was treated with basic bentonite.

Design and Analysis of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Operating at TM03 mode with Single and Stacked Structure for Bandwidth Enhancement

Hind S. Hussain

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 385-394

The goal of this paper is to enhance the bandwidth of a Rectangular Patch Microstrip Antenna, RPMA, operating at higher order mode, TM03 mode, using three techniques: thick substrate, capacitive-feeding and stacked patches techniques. The constant of substrate, for all designs, is 9.8 with loss tangent 0.001, Alumina substrate. Four RPMA’s operating at TM03 mode are designed: a conventional RPMA with two thicknesses, thin and thick substrate thickness, a capacitively-fed RPMA, and stacked capacitively-fed RPMA. The composite effect of integrating the three techniques is appeared in stacked capacitively-fed RPMA design. This design offer a wide bandwidth reach 65% with maximum gain 8.78dB. The performance of these designs(VSWR, the far field radiation pattern, and the current distribution) has been analyzed with the aid of Microwave Office software (MW-Office 2006,Version 7).

PI-like Fuzzy Logic Position Controller Design for Electro-hydraulic Servo-actuator Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms

Zeyad A. Karam

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 395-406

Electrohydraulic servo actuator mathematical model is one of the highly nonlinear hydraulic models. Electrohydraulic servo actuators used by aerospace, industrial and robotics applications for which accurate and fast performance are required in the presence of large loads or external disturbances. A servo actuator is made of a hydraulic cylinder or rotary actuator that is closely connected to an electrohydraulic servo actuator.
This work focuses on modeling and simulation of electrohydraulic servo actuator that used for position control of the flight surface in a military aircraft with presence of external forces. PI-like Fuzzy Logic position intelligent Controller (FLC) is designed and simulated to control the actuator desired position during a specified time with minimum steady state error, settling time and oscillations in position response. This controller is implemented by using MATLAB Simulink and it has a settling time of 0.168 (sec). By comparison with reference [3], which has settling time of 0.341 (sec), there is enhancement by using the proposed controller in settling time about 50.733%. In addition, there is a small fluctuation around the desired position because the controller of mentioned reference does not compensate the force effect and nonlinearities in the actuator model. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithms are used for tuning the gains of the PI-like Fuzzy Logic position Controller to satisfy the minimization in position error at the presence of the external force. The results show that the performance of ABC is more efficient than of PSO algorithm, because the trials by PSO have minimal fitness of 0.0008, but by ABC the minimal fitness achieved is 0.00072.

Low Level Laser Irradiation Effects on Joint Movements

Ziad T. Al-Dahan; Ali S. Mahmood; Ghassan H. Farhan

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 407-411

This study tried to show an approach for joints process healing based on using of low level laser therapy (LLLT), in order to enhance the healing rate. The effect is not thermal, but rather related to photochemical reactions in the cells.
This study included 26 patients with low back pain (LBP) in range of 20-50 years old were randomly divided to the laser treatment group and laser placebo group (control group). Both of two groups were treated twice weekly for 6 weeks. The treated group exposed group to pulse infrared with diode laser (BEAM 3K00) with 904nm wavelength and 230mJ (energy) for one point, and was irradiated on the vertebral column. The same process was performed on control group but with off laser. The laser placebo group did not complete their treatment because there was no improvement or decrease pain. The treated group divided into three subgroups according to the treatment period: the first showed improvement and decrease pain where dispersed to (4) in end of the three-week treatment, and (4) in a five-week treatment, and (5) valuable six weeks treatment. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Schober test and Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) were used in the clinical and functional evaluations pre and post therapeutic periods. Significant improvements were noted in all groups with respect to all outcome parameters, in comparison to placebo laser group. Efficacies of treatment were evaluated using pain relief between treated groups by the statistical significance of the differences between the three feature sets for the LBP was tested with a Bonferroni corrected analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with a significance level of 0.05. Statistically significant differences were found in all outcomes measured (p<0.05).

New Cities Design Policies as a Plan for Sustaining the City

Lubna R. Turky Alazzawi

ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 412-426

The new cities design in Iraq has taken a unique dimensions with no clear policies or sustainable legislation to control it , the urban growth goes in reversed path from the center of the capital “Baghdad” to the edges and outskirts of the city which described as a reversed immigration .Also, the over growth habitats with the high land price problems made cities crowded from inside ready to explode to outside as the plans the government has put for years .All those major problems made a sustainable design policy suggestion urgent for the coming period of building new sustainable cities to sustain Baghdad and the other states in all Iraq in the future . The main problem research: is that “There isn’t a clear vision for a sustainable new cities design policies to sustain Iraqi cities”, and the hypothesis to solve the research problem is “using the sustainable policy elements in new cities design should be a national policy for sustaining the Iraqi cities in the future”. The research objective was to spot the light on the design policies used in planning the new cities in Iraq and to modify it for sustaining the city of Baghdad, The research has taken examples of planned not built cities with city under construction to measure the sustainable design policies that must be in future states and new cities all over Iraq . The results came positive for the case study cities that used a sustainable elements policy in the planning process. In conclusion, this research recommends to use sustainable design policies in future site planning process.